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2. IS MATTER AROUND US PURE
How do we judge whether milk, ghee, butter, salt, spices, mineral water or juice that we buy from the market are pure?
Fig. 1: Some consumable items
Have you ever noticed the word ‘pure’ written on the packs of these consumables? For a common person pure means having no adulteration. But, for a scientist all these things are actually mixtures of different substances and hence not pure. For example, milk is actually a mixture of water, fat, proteins etc. When a scientist says that something is pure, it means that all the constituent particles of that substance are the same in their chemical nature. A pure substance consists of a single type of particles.
As we look around, we can see that most of the matter around us exist as mixtures of two or more pure components, for example, sea water, minerals, soil etc. are all mixtures.
2.1 What is a Mixture?
Mixtures are constituted by more than one kind of pure form of matter, known as a substance. A substance cannot be separated into other kinds of matter by any physical process. We know that dissolved sodium chloride can be separated from water by the physical process of evaporation. However, sodium chloride is itself a substance and cannot be separated by physical process into its chemical constituents. Similarly, sugar is a substance because it contains only one kind of pure matter and its composition is the same throughout.
Soft drink and soil are not single substances. Whatever the source of a substance may be, it will always have the same characteristic properties.
Therefore, we can say that a mixture contains more than one substance.
2.1.1 TYPES OF MIXTURES
Depending upon the nature of the components that form a mixture, we can have different types of mixtures.
Fig. 2: Filtration
Now, we shall learn about solutions, suspensions and colloidal solutions in the following sections.
- What is meant by a pure substance?
- List the points of differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures.
2.2 What is a Solution?
A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. You come across various types of solutions in your daily life. Lemonade, soda water etc. are all examples of solutions. Usually we think of a solution as a liquid that contains either a solid, liquid or a gas dissolved in it. But, we can also have solid solutions (alloys) and gaseous solutions (air). In a solution there is homogeneity at the particle level. For example, lemonade tastes the same throughout. This shows that particles of sugar or salt are evenly distributed in the solution.
A solution has a solvent and a solute as its components. The component of the solution that dissolves the other component in it (usually the component present in larger amount) is called the solvent. The component of the solution that is dissolved in the solvent (usually present in lesser quantity) is called the solute.
- A solution of sugar in water is a solid in liquid solution. In this solution, sugar is the solute and water is the solvent.
- A solution of iodine in alcohol known as ‘tincture of iodine’, has iodine (solid) as the solute and alcohol (liquid) as the solvent.
- Aerated drinks like soda water etc., are gas in liquid solutions. These contain carbon dioxide (gas) as solute and water (liquid) as solvent.
- Air is a mixture of gas in gas. Air is a homogeneous mixture of a number of gases. Its two main constituents are: oxygen (21%) and nitrogen (78%). The other gases are present in very small quantities.
- A solution is a homogeneous mixture.
- The particles of a solution are smaller than 1 nm (10-9 metre) in diameter. So, they cannot be seen by naked eyes.
- Because of very small particle size, they do not scatter a beam of light passing through the solution. So, the path of light is not visible in a solution.
- The solute particles cannot be separated from the mixture by the process of filtration. The solute particles do not settle down when left undisturbed, that is, a solution is stable.
2.2.1 CONCENTRATION OF A SOLUTION
In activity 2.2, we observed that groups A and B obtained different shades of solutions. So, we understand that in a solution the relative proportion of the solute and solvent can be varied. Depending upon the amount of solute present in a solution, it can be called a dilute, concentrated or a saturated solution. Dilute and concentrated are comparative terms. In activity 2.2, the solution obtained by group A is dilute as compared to that obtained by group B.
Is the amount of salt and sugar or barium chloride, that can be dissolved in water at a given temperature, the same?
At any particular temperature, a solution that has dissolved as much solute as it is capable of dissolving, is said to be a saturated solution. In other words, when no more solute can be dissolved in a solution at a given temperature, it is called a saturated solution. The amount of the solute present in the saturated solution at this temperature is called its solubility.
If the amount of solute contained in a solution is less than the saturation level, it is called an unsaturated solution.
What would happen if you were to take a saturated solution at a certain temperature and cool it slowly.
We can infer from the above activity that different substances in a given solvent have different solubilities at the same temperature.
The concentration of a solution is the amount of solute present in a given amount (mass or volume) of solution, or the amount of solute dissolved in a given mass or volume of solvent.
Concentration of solution =Amount of solute/Amount of solution
Amount of sloute/Amount of solvent
There are various ways of expressing the concentration of a solution, but here we will learn only two methods.
(i) Mass by mass percentage of a solution
= (Mass of solute/Mass of solution) x 100
(ii) Mass by volume percentage of a solution
= (Mass of solute/Mass of solution) x 100
A solution contains 40 g of common salt in 320 g of water. Calculate the concentration in terms of mass by mass percentage of the solution.
Mass of solute (salt) = 40 g
Mass of solvent (water) = 320 g
Mass of solution = Mass of solute +Mass of solvent
= 40 g + 320 g
Mass percentage of solution = (Mass of solute/Mass of solution) x 100
=(40/360)x 100 = 11.1%
2.2.2 What is a suspension?
Non-homogeneous systems, like those obtained by group C in activity 2.2, in which solids are dispersed in liquids, are called suspensions. A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which the solute particles do not dissolve but remain suspended throughout the bulk of the medium. Particles of a suspension are visible to the naked eye.
- Suspension is a heterogeneous mixture.
- The particles of a suspension can be seen by the naked eye.
- The particles of a suspension scatter a beam of light passing through it and make its path visible.
- The solute particles settle down when a suspension is left undisturbed, that is, a suspension is unstable. They can be separated from the mixture by the process of filtration. When the particles settle down, the suspension breaks and it does not scatter light any more.
2.2.3 WHAT IS A COLLOIDAL SOLUTION?
The mixture obtained by group D in activity 2.2 is called a colloid or a colloidal solution.
The particles of a colloid are uniformly spread throughout the solution. Due to the relatively smaller size of particles, as compared to that of a suspension, the mixture appears to be homogeneous. But actually, a colloidal solution is a heterogeneous mixture, for example, milk.
Because of the small size of colloidal particles, we cannot see them with naked eyes. But, these particles can easily scatter a beam of visible light as observed in activity 2.2. This scattering of a beam of light is called the Tyndall effect after the name of the scientist who discovered this effect.
Tyndall effect can also be observed when a fine beam of light enters a room through a small hole. This happens due to the scattering of light by the particles of dust and smoke in the air.
Fig. 3: (a) Solution of copper sulphate does not show Tyndall effect, (b) mixture of water and milk shows Tyndall effect.
Tyndall effect can be observed when sunlight passes through the canopy of a dense forest. In the forest, mist contains tiny droplets of water, which act as particles of colloid dispersed in air.
- A colloid is a heterogeneous mixture.
- The size of particles of a colloid is too small to be individually seen by naked eyes.
- Colloids are big enough to scatter a beam of light passing through it and make its path visible.
- They do not settle down when left undisturbed, that is, a colloid is quite stable.
- They cannot be separated from the mixture by the process of filtration. But, a special technique of separation known as centrifugation (perform activity 2.5), can be used to separate the colloidal particles.
The components of a colloidal solution are the dispersed phase and the dispersion medium. The solute-like component or the dispersed particles in a colloid form the dispersed phase, and the component in which the dispersed phase is suspended is known as the dispersing medium. Colloids are classified according to the state (solid, liquid or gas) of the dispersing medium and the dispersed phase. A few common examples are given in Table 2.1. From this table you can see that they are very common everyday life.
- Differentiate between homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures with examples.
- How are sol, solution and suspension different from each other?
- To make a saturated solution, 36 g of sodium chloride is dissolved in 100 g of water at 293 K. Find its concentration at this temperature.
Table 2.1: Common examples of colloids
|Dispersed Phase||Dispersing Medium||Type||Example|
|Liquid||Gas||Aerosol||Fog, clouds, mist|
|Solid||Gas||Aerosol||Smoke, automobile exhaust|
|Liquid||Liquid||Emulsion||Milk, face cream|
|Solid||Liquid||Sol||Milk of magnesia, mud|
|Gas||Solid||Foam||Foam, rubber, sponge, pumice|
|Liquid||Solid||Gel||Jelly, cheese, butter|
|Solid||Solid||Solid Sol||Coloured gemstone, milky glass|
2.3 Separating the Components of a Mixture
We have learnt that most of the natural substances are not chemically pure. Different methods of separation are used to get individual components from a mixture. Separation makes it possible to study and use the individual components of a mixture.
Heterogeneous mixtures can be separated into their respective constituents by simple physical methods like handpicking, sieving, filtration that we use in our day-to-day life. Sometimes special techniques have to be used for the separation of the components of a mixture.
2.3.1 HOW CAN WE OBTAIN COLOURED COMPONENT (DYE) FROM BLUE/ BLACK INK?
We find that ink is a mixture of a dye in water. Thus, we can separate the volatile component (solvent) from its non-volatile solute by the method of evaporation.
2.3.2 HOW CAN WE SEPARATE CREAM FROM MILK?
Now-a-days, we get full-cream, toned and double-toned varieties of milk packed in polypacks or tetra packs in the market. These varieties of milk contain different amounts of fat.
Sometimes the solid particles in a liquid are very small and pass through a filter paper. For such particles the filtration technique are separated by centrifugation. The principle is that the denser particles are forced to the bottom and the lighter particles stay at the top when spun rapidly.
- Used in diagnostic laboratories for blood and urine tests.
- Used in dairies and home to separate butter from cream.
- Used in washing machines to squeeze out water from wet clothes.
2.3.3 HOW CAN WE SEPARATE A MIXTURE OF TWO IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS?
- To separate mixture of oil and water.
- In the extraction of iron from its ore, the lighter slag is removed from the top by this method to leave the molten iron at the bottom in the furnace.
The principle is that immiscible liquids separate out in layers depending on their densities.
2.3.4 HOW CAN WE SEPARATE A MIXTURE OF SALT AND AMMONIUM CHLORIDE?
We have learnt in chapter 1 that ammonium chloride changes directly from solid to gaseous state on heating. So, to separate such mixtures that contain a sublimable volatile component from a non-sublimable impurity (salt in this case), the sublimation process is used (Fig. 7). Some examples of solids which sublime are ammonium chloride, camphor, naphthalene and anthracene.
2.3.5 IS THE DYE IN BLACK INK A SINGLE COLOUR?
The ink that we use has water as the solvent and the dye is soluble in it. As the water rises on the filter paper it takes along with it the dye particles. Usually, a dye is a mixture of two or more colours. The coloured component that is more soluble in water, rises faster and in this way the colours get separated.
This process of separation of components of a mixture is known as chromatography. Kroma in Greek means colour. This technique was first used for separation of colours, so this name was given. Chromatography is the technique used for separation of those solutes that dissolve in the same solvent.
With the advancement in technology, newer techniques of chromatography have been developed. You will study about chromatography in higher classes.
- colours in a dye
- pigments from natural colours
- drugs from blood.
2.3.6 HOW CAN WE SEPARATE A MIXTURE OF TWO MISCIBLE LIQUIDS?
This method is called distillation. It is used for the separation of components of a mixture containing two miscible liquids that boil without decomposition and have sufficient difference in their boiling points.
To separate a mixture of two or more miscible liquids for which the difference in boiling points is less than 25 K, fractional distillation process is used, for example, for the separation of different gases from air, different factions from petroleum products etc. The apparatus is similar to that for simple distillation, except that a fractionating column is fitted in between the distillation flask and the condenser.
A simple fractionating column is a tube packed with glass beads. The beads provide surface for the vapours to cool and condense repeatedly, as shown in Fig. 10.
2.3.7 HOW CAN WE OBTAIN DIFFERENT GASES FROM AIR ?
Air is a homogeneous mixture and can be separated into its components by fractional distillation. The flow diagram (Fig. 11) shows the steps of the process.
If we want oxygen gas from air (Fig. 12), we have to separate out all the other gases present in the air. The air is compressed by increasing the pressure and is then cooled by decreasing the temperature to get liquid air. This liquid air is allowed to warm-up slowly in a fractional distillation column, where gases get separated at different heights depending upon their boiling points.
- Arrange the gases present in air in increasing order of their boiling points.
- Which gas forms the liquid first as the air is cooled?
2.3.8 HOW CAN WE OBTAIN PURE COPPER SULPHATE FROM AN IMPURE SAMPLE?
The crystallisation method is used to purify solids. For example, the salt we get from sea water can have many impurities in it. To remove these impurities, the process of crystallisation is used. Crystallisation is a process that separates a pure solid in the form of its crystals from a solution. Crystallisation technique is better than simple evaporation technique as –
- some solids decompose or some, like sugar, may get charred on heating to dryness.
- some impurities may remain dissolved in the solution even after filtration. On evaporation these contaminate the solid.
- Purification of salt that we get from sea water.
- Separation of crystals of alum (phitkari) from impure samples.
Thus, by choosing one of the above methods according to the nature of the components of a mixture, we get a pure substance. With advancements in technology many more methods of separation techniques have been devised.
In cities, drinking water is supplied from water works. A flow diagram of a typical water works is shown in Fig. 13. From this figure write down the processes involved to get the supply of drinking water to your home from the water works and discuss it in your class.
- How will you separate a mixture containing kerosene and petrol (difference in their boiling points is more than 25ºC), which are miscible with each other?
- Name the technique to separate
2.4 Physical and Chemical Changes
To understand the difference between a pure substance and a mixture, let us understand the difference between a physical and a chemical change.
In the previous chapter, we have learnt about a few physical properties of matter. The properties that can be observed and specified like colour, hardness, rigidity, fluidity, density, melting point, boiling point etc. are the physical properites.
The interconversion of states is a physical change because these changes occur without a change in composition and no change in the chemical nature of the substance.
Although ice, water and water vapour all look different and display different physical properties, they are chemically the same.
Both water and cooking oil are liquid but their chemical characteristics are different. They differ in odour and inflammability. We know that oil burns in air whereas water extinguishes fire. It is this chemical property of oil that makes it different from water. Burning is a chemical change. During this process one substance reacts with another to undergo a change in chemical composition. Chemical change brings change in the chemical properties of matter and we get new substances. A chemical change is also called a chemical reaction.
During burning of a candle, both physical and chemical changes take place. Can you distinguish these?
- Classify the following as chemical or physical changes
2.5 What are the Types of Pure Substances?
On the basis of their chemical composition, substances can be classified either as elements or compounds.
Robert Boyle was the first scientist to use the term element in 1661. Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-94), a French chemist, was the first to establish an experimentally useful definition of an element. He defined an element as a basic form of matter that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical reactions.
Elements can be normally divided into metals, non-metals and metalloids.
Metals usually show some or all of the following properties:
- They have a lustre (shine).
- They have silvery-grey or golden-yellow colour.
- They conduct heat and electricity.
- They are ductile (can be drawn into wires).
- They are malleable (can be hammered into thin sheets).
- They are sonorous (make a ringing sound when hit).
Examples of metals are gold, silver, copper, iron, sodium, potassium etc. Mercury is the only metal that is liquid at room temperature.
Non-metals usually show some or all of the following properties:
- They display a variety of colours.
- They are poor conductors of heat and electricity.
- They are not lustrous, sonorous or malleable.
Examples of non-metals are hydrogen, oxygen, iodine, carbon (coal, coke), bromine, chlorine etc. Some elements have intermediate properties between those of metals and non-metals, they are called metalloids; examples are boron, silicon, germanium etc.
A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements, chemically combined with one another in a fixed proportion.
What do we get when two or more elements are combined?
The gas obtained by Group I is hydrogen, it is colourless, odourless and combustible– it is not advised to do the combustion test for hydrogen in the class. The gas obtained by Group II is hydrogen sulphide. It is a colourless gas with the smell of rotten eggs.
You must have observed that the products obtained by both the groups show different properties, though the starting materials were the same. Group I has carried out the activity involving a physical change whereas in case of Group II, a chemical change (a chemical reaction) has taken place.
- The material obtained by group I is a mixture of the two substances. The substances given are the elements– iron and sulphur.
- The properties of the mixture are the same as that of its constituents.
- The material obtained by group II is a compound.
- On heating the two elements strongly we get a compound, which has totally different properties compared to the combining elements.
- The composition of a compound is the same throughout. We can also observe that the texture and the colour of the compound are the same throughout. Thus, we can summarise the physical and chemical nature of matter in the following graphical organiser :